In computer programming, a collection refers to an object that groups multiple elements, such as arrays, lists, or sets. Collections are used to store, retrieve, manipulate, and communicate aggregate data. They typically provide mechanisms for various operations like adding, removing, and iterating over items. Different types of collections have different properties and uses; for example, arrays might store elements in a fixed-size sequence, while a list might allow dynamic addition and removal of elements. Collections are fundamental in programming for efficiently handling groups of related items.